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8D Meaning (or Eight disciplines problem solving) is a method developed at Ford Motor Company used to approach and resolve problems, typically employed by quality engineers or other professionals. Focused on product and process improvement, its purpose is to identify, correct, and eliminate recurring problems.[1] It establishes a permanent corrective action based on a statistical analysis of the problem and on the origin of the problem by determining the root causes. Although it originally comprised eight stages, or ‘disciplines’, it was later augmented by an initial planning stage. 8D follows the logic of the PDCA cycle.

8D Meaning: The 8 disciplines are:

D0: Preparation and Emergency Response Actions: Plan for solving the problem and determine the prerequisites. Provide emergency response actions.

D1: Use a Team: Establish a team of people with product/process knowledge. Teammates provide new perspectives and different ideas when it comes to problem-solving.

D2: Describe the Problem: Specify the problem by identifying in quantifiable terms the who, what, where, when, why, how, and how many (5W2H) for the problem.

D3: Develop Interim Containment Plan: Define and implement containment actions to isolate the problem from any customer.

D4: Determine and Verify Root Causes and Escape Points: Identify all applicable causes that could explain why the problem has occurred. Also, identify why the problem was not noticed at the time it occurred. All causes shall be verified or proved. One can use five whys or Ishikawa diagrams to map causes against the effect or problem identified.

D5: Verify Permanent Corrections (PCs) for Problem that will resolve the problem for the customer: Using pre-production programs, quantitatively confirm that the selected correction will resolve the problem. (Verify that the correction will solve the problem).

D6: Define and Implement Corrective Actions: Define and implement the best corrective actions. Also, validate corrective actions with empirical evidence of improvement.

D7: Prevent Recurrence / System Problems: Modify the management systems, operation systems, practices, and procedures to prevent the recurrence of this and similar problems.

D8: Congratulate the Main Contributors to your Team: Recognize the collective efforts of the team. The team needs to be formally thanked by the organization.

8Ds have become a standard in the automotive,[2] assembly, and other industries that require a thorough structured problem-solving process using a team approach.

#### References

Wikipedia. Accuracy and Precision. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eight_disciplines_problem_solving