First Pass Yield (FPY)

This is the result of dividing the number of units that go into a particular process by a certain period of time. This is a key manufacturing metric for measuring quality and production performance. This relates to the efficiency of a particular process and the reduction of waste. The First Pass Yield (FPY) can also be used to measure the success of continuous improvements because it focuses on reducing waste and inefficiency.

It is easy to apply the FPY formula.

First Pass Yield = (units completed from the process to specifications without rework)/(total units entering the process).


If 100 units are entered into a process, then 99 of them are finished according to specifications, while 2 are reworked.
First Pass Yield = (92-2) / 100 = 0.97 = 97%

What is first pass yield?

First Pass Yield, also known as Throughput Yield, is a measure of quality units produced in relation to the total number of units that started the process.

Reduced waste is a simple reason why manufacturers should track and improve their FPY. Waste is generated when scrap parts or units needing rework are produced.

  • If the part is scrapped, then the material is wasted.
  • The time spent on scrap and rework is labor wasted
  • Machine tool depreciation is applicable to parts that do not generate revenue
  • The fact that a better part could have been produced instead has an opportunity cost.

A higher-than-average first-pass yield can give you a competitive edge. This could have several benefits for your bottom line, including:

  • You will get high-quality customers.
  • Delivery times are more likely met.
  • You can be competitive with your pricing

The FPY model is not a panacea. It could be harmful to focus on FPY without considering other metrics. It is therefore important to monitor production performance by focusing on multiple metrics, or a composite metric like OEE.