- Is the team and project sponsored by a champion or business leader?
- Is the team comprised of SME’s
- Have they had the Yellow Belt Training?
Chi Squared is used to determine if an Attribute or Discrete “X” has an effect on and Attribute or Discrete “Y”. The example below is a hypothesis (or an educated guess) that there is a difference in Loan Default Rates between Bank Branches.
The Chi Squared test is intended to test how likely it is that an observed distribution of data is due to chance. Chi Squared is also called the “goodness of fit” statistic, because it measures how well the observed distribution of data fits with the distribution that is expected if the variables are independent
The Null and Alternative Hypotheses are:
- Ho = Variable A and Variable B are indepent
- There is no effect on Defaulted Loans due to Bank Branches
- Ha = Variable A and Variable B are not independent
- There is an effect on Defaulted Loans due to Bank Branches
A Tollgate Review will help you determine if the goals in a DMAIC stage have been completed and whether you can move on to the next stage. A Six Sigma Tollgate Review is like a checkpoint at which the various team members meet with a project Champion and determine whether the work has been performed as indicated in the project plan and whether the objectives mentioned have been achieved.
- Has the Preliminary FMEA been developed?
- Has the Team drilled down on at least the five Key Inputs determined through the C&E Matrix
- Has the team discovered any quick wins from the FMEA? If so, how are they being dealt with?
- What Statistical Tools were used to analyze the data?
- Has the team gathered data for a Mult-Vari Analysis to determine the “Critical Few” Variables?
- Has the team used the Basic Quality Tools to graphically analyze the data?
- Has a Hypothesis statement(s), null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis has been developed for the data analyzed
My team and I at Six Sigma Development Solutions, Inc. are engaged in Lean and Six Sigma project work about 60% of the time. We encounter many different opportunities from a variety of disciplines. We are often called in to act as added capacity to an organization that has a continuos improvement system in place. When engaged with the teams at these organizations, I am often witness to a team “jumping into the deep weeds” of root cause analysis without understanding if the process is working as was originally engineered to work. If not, where is the delta.
I have an analogy that I like to use in class when teaching the concept of "capability". The analogy is called "Closing Open Windows" and is as follows: I drive up to my house open July day when it is 105 degrees Fahrenheit outside. I can hear my condenser (my A/C's external unit) humming. I have an A/C unit that is rated for a house much larger than mine because I am not fond of the heat. When I enter my house, it is 98 degrees inside. Something is wrong. I check my thermostat and it reads 74 degrees. I check to make sure cold air is I being pushed out through my vents. The cold air is effectively being diffused throughout the house. What is the next thing that you would investigate? Most would answer that you would check for open doors and windows. That is the obvious answer, but I see "trained" practitioners first knocking holes in the walls to see if they are missing insulation. They are jumping into a deep root cause analysis without understanding the current state capability of the Inputs.
- Has a detailed Process Flow Chart/Map been developed to show Quick Wins (redundancies, Lean Improvements)?
- Has the “Input Map” been developed?
- How much time was spent on the development of the Input Map?
- Is the team confident that they have identified most of KPIV’s (Key Process Input Variables)?
- Are the KPOV’s (Key Process Output Variables) described in measureable terms?
- What key measures identified indicate the performance of the business process (The Big Y’s and Little Y’s)?
- What are the agreed upon definitions (specifications) of the high impact characteristics (CTQs), defect(s), unit(s), and opportunities that will figure into the process capability metrics?